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1  Wolf, M.  "Maryanne Wolf: Literacy is a Basic Human Right." Available at

2  Kutner, M., Greenberg, E., Jin, Y., Boyle, B., Hsu, Y.-c., & Dunleavy, E. (2007). Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. National Center for Education Statistics: NCES 2007-490. Available at:

3  Torgesen, J. Avoiding the devastating downward spiral: The evidence that early intervention prevents reading failure.  American Educator.  Available at:

4  Regarding adults: Mellard, D., Woods, K., Fall, E. (2011).  Assessment and instruction of oral reading fluency among adults with low literacy.  Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal 5: 3-14. ; Regarding children: National Center for Education Statistics & Institute of Edducational Sciences (2017).  The National Assessment of Educational Progress.  Available at:

5  Creese, B. (2015).  An Assessment of the English and maths skills levels of prisoners in England.  Centre for Education in the Criminal Justice System at UCL Institute of Education. Available at:

6  Hendricks, C., Hendricks, J.E., & Kauffman, S. (2016).  Literacy, Criminal Activity, and Recidivism.  American Reading Forum.  Available at:

Donate to the St. Lucia Literacy Project, 2019